Can a Cannabis-Based Pill Help Treat Concussions?

first_imgSign up for our COVID-19 newsletter to stay up-to-date on the latest coronavirus news throughout New York A former investment adviser from Roslyn Heights is taking his talents to South Beach.Jonathan Gilbert, CEO of Scythian Biosciences Inc., a biotech firm, has secured $16 million in funding for a promising trial at the University of Miami considering the potential impact of a cannabis-based compound to treat concussions and Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI).The cannabinoid compound at the center of the trials, cannabidiol (CBD), is believed to contain neuroprotective properties that could, in theory, reduce inflammation in the brain caused by head trauma. Adding to the intrigue, the drug would not contain Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which creates the psychoactive effect in the brain when using marijuana.Researchers at the University of Miami hope the trial could produce a first-of-its-kind pharmaceutical answer to concussions, which has recently been the focus of millions of dollars in research, largely in response to the impact concussions have had on current and former NFL players.For Gilbert, a career investment adviser who worked for a Connecticut-based hedge fund, it’s incredibly exciting transitioning to biotech, focusing his efforts on a potentially game-changing drug, something that has thus far remained elusive to concussion patients.“I can’t sleep at night thinking about what I can be accomplishing here,” he told the Press. “What an amazing accomplishment to create something that could be effective for everyone on Earth.”Gilbert founded Scythian Biosciences Inc. three years ago, following a Tourette Syndrome support group session in which teenagers indicated they had used marijuana to “self medicate.” Gilbert and his wife have three kids, the youngest of whom suffers from the neurological disorder.The conversation with the teens got Gilbert thinking: how could marijuana benefit not only his son, but people inflicted with various ailments, including concussion?Gilbert knew his extensive list of contacts and ability to raise money and attract talent would make up for whatever experience he lacked in the pharmaceutical industry. In the latter years of his investment career, he noticed an uptick in medical marijuana businesses seeking funding, though most pitches were underwhelming. Still keen on the idea of marijuana-based treatment, he made a decision to go his own route.Initially Gilbert’s goal was to enter the industry in Canada, whose prime minister, Justin Trudeau, recently introduced legislation to legalize recreational marijuana nationwide. The prospect of similar legislation being proposed by the Trump administration appears far-fetched.Gilbert went ahead and purchased a facility in Canada with the idea of growing and selling medical marijuana. But instead of joining the growing medical marijuana industry, Gilbert, with his own son in mind, gambled on an entry into the pharmaceutical industry.Mindful of the surprisingly minimal treatment options for concussions, Gilbert got the sense that it was a “wide open space” with the potential of becoming a billion-dollar industry.“I’m learning as I go,” he said.Even so, Gilbert already sounds experienced.“Our therapy, which involves the use of two drugs, targets two different brain receptors which are involved in suppressing this immune response and the associated inflammation,” he explained.Scythian Biosciences Inc now has offices in Canada and the United States—including one at the University of Miami. The company has applied for a patent for its treatment and the University of Miami is in the pre-trial phase of the five-year study.Heading the university’s research is Dr. Gillian Hotz, research professor of neurological surgery and director of the concussion program at University of Miami Health System Sports Medicine.When the university announced the study, Hotz acknowledged the previous work her team had done to develop concussion protocols and better educate high school, collegiate and professional athletes.“One thing has eluded us—a clinically proven medication to treat concussion,’ she said. “Whether or not this study leads to a pill that could treat concussion, this type of research will pave the way for UM and other researchers to better manage concussion. It’s a privilege to help lead this journey.”Researchers are currently examining TBI in rodents before testing the compound in the form of a pill on humans. Clues to as to whether the treatment could be the game-changer Gilbert is hoping it is won’t come until the third phase, which is expected to take three years.The University of Miami trial comes as medical professionals have earnestly been scrutinizing new ways to treat concussed patients. The US government has funded studies into hyperbaric oxygen therapy, which uses oxygen to reduce swelling and increase blood flow. At the University of Buffalo, researchers are testing how recently concussed athletes react to light aerobics, which would undermine years of conventional thinking that long periods of rest is best for a concussed brain.Gilbert welcomes the deluge of research. Given how pervasive concussions have become, he recognizes the need for changes in how concussions are treated—even if it means increased competition. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, upwards of 3.6 million people suffer a TBI each year. Additionally, an analysis by Blue Cross Blue Shield found that concussions increased by more than 40 percent in the past five years.Gilbert is hardly alone in advocating for cannabis treatment to tackle America’s concussion problem. Harvard psychiatrist Lester Grinspoon in 2014 penned a letter to NFL Commissioner Roger Goodell urging the league to pursue marijuana treatment.“Already, many doctors and researchers believe that marijuana has incredibly powerful neuroprotective properties, an understanding based on both laboratory and clinical data,” Grinspoon wrote. “But unfortunately, the extensive research required to definitively determine cannabis’s ability to prevent CTE will require millions of dollars in upfront investment, and despite the great promise many now see in cannabinopathic medicine, it’s hard to imagine who else has both the motive and the means to provide such funding.”It appears Gilbert is both motivated and has found the financial backing for such an effort. And while he waits for the study to take shape, he said he’ll continue to raise money for his company, and perhaps even find a way to help more people like his son.last_img read more

Ivan Kajić winner of 19th Easter Chess Tournament

first_imgNineteenth Easter Chess Tournament was held in Novi Travnik in organisation of chess club ‘Novi Travnik’.Tournament was played according to Berger’s system in 11 round, with 15 minutes per players. President of the chess club Stipo Lozančić greeted the competitors and thanked to Novi Travnik municipality and ‘Caffe Milano’.Ivan Kajić won the first place with 8 points, and Lozančić gave the awards to best ranked competitors.last_img

Sanders outlines ag agenda in speech in Osage

first_imgOSAGE — Vermont Senator Bernie Sanders on Sunday said there’s a “major crisis” in rural America and the federal government must break up monopolies in the ag sector that treat farmers like “modern-day indentured servants.”“Farmers know this,” Sanders said. “I want the people in urban America to understand this as well.”Sanders, in his second campaign for the Democratic Party’s presidential nomination, used a Sunday speech in Osage to outline his prescriptions for economic revival in rural areas.“What the American people, what you want and what I want are more family farms in America, not more factory farms,” Sanders said, to applause and cheers.Sanders called for federal oversight of the environmental impact of large-scale poultry and livestock confinements, just as other industries are regulated in Iowa and elsewhere.“More and more of the state’s agriculture is being dominated by just a handful of large corporations who is seems to me from a distance own the Iowa state legislature,” Sanders said.In addition, Sanders would get rid of federal subsidies for crop insurance and, again, link federal payments to targeted prices for commodities. Sanders said American farmers should be guaranteed federal support to cover production costs, “plus living expenses.”“Farmers deserve a fair price for the very, very hard work that they do,” Sanders said.Sanders would cap federal farm payments, too, to limit payments to large farm operations.last_img read more

President Trump invokes Defense Production Act

first_imgThey then tweeted that they will  have the ability to deliver more than 10,000 ventilators by next month. President Trump announced on Friday that he has invoked the Defense Production Act in order to get General Motors to begin producing ventilators.According to the report, GM refused to begin producing the much needed ventilators because they could not agree on a price with the ventilator company. GM then agreed to only produce 6,000 of the nearly 40,000 ventilators they promised during negotiations. President Trump then stepped and invoked the DPA stating: “the fight against the virus is too urgent to allow the give-and-take of the contracting process to continue to run its normal course.” Shortly after the executive order, GM announced that it has come to a deal with the ventilator company to produce the product at cost.center_img During a press conference held late Friday, reporters asked the president whether he truly believed that 40,000 ventilators were truly needed, to which the president replied that the hope is we will not need that many but if we have extra, we can send them to our friends in other countries who are unable to produce them.last_img read more

Les merveilles de la vie sauvage en Afrique du Sud

first_imgLes villes se sont etendues, beaucoup de terres ont ete donnees aux paysans, la chasse a decime des troupeaux et l’epoque a laquelle un troupeau de springboks pouvait mettre plusieurs jours pour traverser une ville du Karoo appartient au passe.Pourtant, grace a la prevoyance des defenseurs de la nature d’hier et d’aujourd’hui, l’Afrique du Sud reste le terrain beni d’une vie sauvage abondante.Les cinq grands animauxLes grands felinsUne vie sauvage meconnuePlus de 200 especes de mammiferesLes mammiferes marins et les poissonsLe les autres reptilesLes oiseauxLes cinq grands animauxLes mammiferes sont les plus connus, et parmi eux se trouvent les cinq grands animaux : L’elephant, le lion, le rhinoceros, le leopard et le buffle. Ce n’est pas que la girafe, l’hippopotame ou la baleine soient petits.Le Bushveld d’Afrique du Sud et les regions de savane abritent encore un grand nombre des mammiferes universellement associes a l’Afrique. Le parc national Kuger accueille a lui seul plus de 10 000 elephants et 20000 buffles; en 1920, on estimait la population d’elephants a 120 dans toute l’Afrique.Le rhinoceros blanc a egalement ete sauve in extremis de l’extinction et prospere maintenant a la fois dans le parc national Kruger et dans le parc Hluhluwe Umfolozi au KwaZulu-Natal. L’attention se porte maintenant a la protection du rhinoceros noir.Ces deux parcs abritent les cinq grands animaux comme les autres principales reserves d’Afrique du Sud telles que Pilanesberg dans la province du Nord Ouest et de nombreuses reserves plus petites et des lodges privees.Les grands felinsMise a part sa place de dominant en haut de l’echelle des predateurs, le lion remporte aussi les faveurs du glamour. Malheureusement, il a un ennemi formidable qui est l’homme et qui l’a chasse de la majorite du territoire et il ne subsiste presque exclusivement que dans les zones de protection.Le magnifique leopard survit dans une plus grande region comprenant la plus grande partie de la region du Southern Cape et jusqu’au nord du pays, bien que leur nombre soit moindre dans certains endroits.Le troisieme des grands felins est particulierement fascinant. Le guepard est le champion de la vitesse, capable d’atteindre des pointes de presque 100 kilometres/heure. Cependant, ses petits sont vulnerables face aux autres predateurs et la population de guepards est comparativement petite et confinee pour la plupart dans l’extreme nord (y compris dans le parc national Kruger), le parc Kgalagadi Transfrontier dans la province de Northern Cape et les reserves des provinces du KwaZulu-Natal et du Nord Ouest.Une vie sauvage meconnueL’hippopotame, la girafe, le kudu, le gnou et le zebre sont autant d’autres grands animaux typiquement africains que l’on observe frequemment dans les zones de preservation d’Afrique du Sud.Une sensibilisation accrue, cependant, a provoque une augmentation de l’appreciation d’animaux moins connus. Une observation du rare tsessebe (un cousin du gnou) peut etre aussi excitante que la vue d’une troupe de lions se prelassant sous un arbre epineux du Bushveld. Et alors que personne ne ratera le passage d’un elephant, le reperage du suni, un petit animal timide de la foret ou antilope de Livingstone demande une vision aceree et provoque une certaine autosatisfaction.À une bien plus petite echelle, on pourrait relever le defi de voir les sept especes de musaraignes d’Afrique du Sud, une tache qui necessiterait un voyage a travers tout le pays et, probablement, beaucoup de temps pour etre realisee.Plus de 200 especes de mammiferesAvec bien plus de 200 especes, un bref passage en revue des mammiferes indigene de l’Afrique du Sud serait tout simplement une contradiction. Quelques exemples vous donneront une idee de l’etendue.En termes d’interet, les primates se classent parmi les premiers. En Afrique du Sud, ils rassemblent les bushbabies nocturnes, les singes vervet et samango et les babouins chacma qui, encourages par une alimentation irresponsable et sous la pression de la perte de leur habitat, sont devenus indesirables et des devastateurs de domiciles de la peninsule du Cap.Les dassies (ou hyraxes, residents des habitats rocheux) et les meerkats (ou suricates, connus pour leur position debout en cas d’alerte) ont un charme terrible bien qu’ils puissent etre un probleme pour l’agriculture.Le aardvark (ou cochon de terre) discret et nocturne (qui mange des fourmis et est le seul membre de l’ordre des tubulidentes) et le protele (qui mange des termites et est apparente a la hyene) sont deux creatures interessantes que l’on rencontre quasiment dans tout le pays.Et pour ceux qui aiment les mammiferes terrestres des zones humides, il y a la loutre sans griffe du Cap qui nage dans l’eau douce et dans l’eau salee. La loutre tachetee possede un territoire plus limite. Les deux sont rares, cependant, et difficiles a apercevoir.Un mammifere dont l’attrait est nouveau est le chien sauvage ou chien chasseur du Cap, un des mammiferes les plus menaces d’extinction en Afrique. Considere par erreur a une epoque comme un tueur systematique et apprecie aujourd’hui pour sa valeur ecologique et pour les soins remarquables qu’il porte a sa famille dans la meute, le chien sauvage a besoin de vastes territoires. Une seule meute a besoin en moyenne de plusieurs centaines de kilometres carres.On les rencontre en petit nombre dans le parc national Kruger et ses alentours, dans le nord du KwaZulu-Nata (y compris dans le parc Hluhluwe-Umfolozi) et dans le Kalahari et dans la reserve Madikwee de la province du Nord Ouest.La hyene, le chacal et le renard mangeur de chauve-souris sont des carnivores plus courants. En dehors de ceux que nous avons deja mentionnes, les felins comprennent le caracal (ou lynx africain) avec ses oreilles touffues caracteristiques, le chat sauvage africain et le chat a pattes noires plus rare. La civette, la genette et plusieurs sortes de mangoustes forment un autre groupe de mangeurs de chair.Les herbivores sont particulierement bien representes par diverses antilopes, de la petite duiker a la grande kudu et aux superbes antilopes des sables que l’on rencontre uniquement dans les regions les plus au nord.Les mammiferes occupent aussi le ciel : L’Afrique du Sud est bien dotee en especes de chauve-souris.Les mammiferes marins et les poissonsEt ils occupent aussi la mer. Le plus grand mammifere de tous, en Afrique du Sud et dans le monde, est la baleine bleue qui peut atteindre une longueur de 33 metres.Mais sur les huit especes de baleines que l’on rencontre dans les eaux de l’Afrique du Sud (y compris le terrible orque tueur), celui qui est le plus souvent aperçu par les hommes est la baleine australe. Cette creature imposante vient dans les baies cotieres pour mettre bas permettant d’etre observee superbement depuis le rivage.La baleine australe represente une reussite de la protection animale. Autrefois consideree comme la baleine  bonne  a chasser, sa population se reduit tellement qu’elle fut classee au rang des especes en voie d’extinction. L’enthousiasme qu’elles ont provoque lorsqu’elles sont retournees dans les baies cotieres a fait qu’elles sont aujourd’hui autant aimees que les nombreux dauphins de nos eaux cotieres.Les mers d’Afrique du Sud sont riches en especes de poissons. Le plus surprenant d’entre eux est peut etre le grand requin blanc mais il n’est qu’un representant parmi 2000 especes totalisant 16% du total mondial. Divers poissons, le homard des rochers et l’ormeau sont d’un grand interet pour les gourmets alors que les poissons pelagiques (les sardines et les pilchards) ainsi que le colin ont une grande valeur commerciale.Le les autres reptilesLa nature a ete moins genereuse pour les poissons d’eau douce : 112 especes, a peine 1,3 % du total mondial mais cependant l’Afrique du Sud possede un habitant des rivieres qui est, comme les cinq grands animaux, un symbole de l’Afrique. Le crocodile regne toujours sur certaines portions de fleuves et d’estuaires, lacs et mares, le faisant parfois payer cher en termes de vie humaine.Les autres reptiles aquatiques qu’il est bon de citer sont les tortues de mer, la loggerhead et la tortue luth, effort de conservation de toute une communaute sur le terrain de leur ponte sur le rivage du nord du KwaZulu-Natal.Les reptiles terrestres d’Afrique du Sud comprennent les rares tortues de terre et le fascinant cameleon. Il existe plus de 100 especes de serpents. Alors que la moitie d’entre eux, y compris le python, ne sont pas venimeux, les autres, comme la vipere heurtante, la mamba verte et noire, le boomslang (ou serpent des arbres) et les rinkhals (ou cobras cracheurs) le sont.La secheresse relative du pays justifie son faible nombre d’amphibiens : 84 especes. Pour compenser cela, cependant, l’Afrique du Sud beneficie de plus de 77000 especes d’invertebres.Les oiseauxLes passionnes d’oiseaux du monde entier viennent en Afrique du Sud pour faire l’experience de la grande diversite des oiseaux africains, migrateurs et endemiques (que l’on ne trouve qu’en Afrique du Sud).Sur 850 especes environ qui ont ete repertoriees en Afrique du Sud, environ 725 sont des residents ou des visiteurs annuels et environ 50 des ceux-ci sont endemiques ou quasi-endemiques.Mis a part les oiseaux residents, l’Afrique du Sud abrite un certain nombre de migrateurs internes a l’Afrique comme les coucous et les royals ainsi que des oiseaux de l’Arctique, d’Europe, d’Asie Centrale, de Chine et de l’Antarctique au cours de l’annee.Les oiseaux d’Afrique du Sud vont de l’autruche, elevee dans le district d’Oudtshoorn de la region de Western Cape, et rencontree a l’etat sauvage dans presque tout le nord du pays, en passant par des especes aussi surprenantes que le calao et jusqu aux omnipresents moineaux et autres passereaux des prairies.Seule une petite zone autour de la ville de Vryheid dans le nord du Kwaulu-Natal offre des marais, des prairies, des forets d’epineux en montagne et pres des fleuves et environ 380 especes y ont ete repertoriees.L’amateur d’oiseaux n’aura pas besoin de sortir d’un jardin typique du Gauteng pour apercevoir des perroquets gris, des colious, des huppes, des ibis d’hadeda, des barbicans promepics et des barbicans a collier, des zosterops a lunettes du Cap, des grives olives ou des coucals de Burchell picorant maladroitement autour d’un arbre. Et cela ne cloture en aucun cas la liste.Parmi les oiseaux les plus spectaculaires d’Afrique du Sud, on rencontre les grues, que l’on observe plus facilement dans les marais, bien qu’il faille etre tres chanceux pour voir une grue a caroncule qui est extremement rare. La magnifique grue bleue est l’oiseau national d’Afrique du Sud, la grue couronnee est probablement la plus tape-a-l’œil des trois avec sa crete proeminente caracteristique.Parmi les especes d’oiseaux plus grandes, l’Afrique du Sud abrite egalement plusieurs aigles et vautours. Parmi les plus colores, on rencontre les martins-pecheurs, les guepiers, les oiseaux mouches, l’exquis rollier a longs brins, et les perroquets Knysna et a huppe splendide.Source : Office de tourisme d’Afrique du Sudlast_img read more

Ex-NBA star Stoudemire won’t play for Jerusalem next season

first_imgView comments Kammuri turning to super typhoon less likely but possible — Pagasa LOOK: Venues for 2019 SEA Games Read Next Catriona Gray spends Thanksgiving by preparing meals for people with illnesses Trending Articles PLAY LIST 00:50Trending Articles00:45Onyok Velasco see bright future for PH boxing in Olympics00:50Trending Articles01:37Protesters burn down Iran consulate in Najaf01:47Panelo casts doubts on Robredo’s drug war ‘discoveries’01:29Police teams find crossbows, bows in HK university01:35Panelo suggests discounted SEA Games tickets for students02:49Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. “I feel it is my time now to return to the shareholder’s position and help make this team even better.”Stoudemire came to Jerusalem after an NBA career that began with great promise was cut short by injuries, particularly to his knees.He described his decision as a spiritual quest, with the former New York Knicks and Phoenix Suns star identifying as a Hebrew Israelite, African-Americans who believe they descended from the ancient tribes of Israel.Stoudemire repeatedly expressed his excitement at being in Jerusalem, though he faced criticism earlier this year and apologised following a backlash over his comments he would avoid a gay teammate.ADVERTISEMENT Pacquiao wants Horn rematch in the Philippines Brace for potentially devastating typhoon approaching PH – NDRRMCcenter_img WATCH: Streetboys show off slick dance moves in Vhong Navarro’s wedding MOST READ UPLB exempted from SEA Games class suspension Jerusalem won Israel’s premier league last season, with Stoudemire averaging 9.9 points, 5.9 rebounds and 1.3 blocks per game. Stoudemire addressed his decision in an Instagram post.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSWATCH: Drones light up sky in final leg of SEA Games torch runSPORTSSEA Games: Philippines picks up 1st win in men’s water poloSPORTSMalditas save PH from shutout“It has been a great ride for myself and my family. We enjoyed the city, its people, the holy places and of course Hapoel fans,” he said.“Although I would have liked to return for another season, the team, coach and I could not find a role that I felt would allow me to meaningfully contribute in the way I have always been accustomed to play.” Typhoon Kammuri accelerates, gains strength en route to PH SEA Games in Calabarzon safe, secure – Solcom chief LATEST STORIES Former NBA All-Star Amar’e Stoudemire speaks to a journalist during a basketball training session with his new club Hapoel Jerusalem in Jerusalem on October 7, 2016.Stoudemire, who followed a winding path from poverty to professional basketball fame in the United States, has embarked on a new journey. After an NBA career that began with great promise before being cut short by injuries, Stoudemire has decided to make Jerusalem his home, becoming the most famous name to ever join the Israeli league./ AFP PHOTO / THOMAS COEXFormer NBA star Amar’e Stoudemire, who became the most famous name to join Israel’s basketball league when he signed with Hapoel Jerusalem last year, will not play for the team next season, the team said Sunday.The 34-year-old will return to his status as a minority owner of the team, Jerusalem spokesman David Bassan told AFP. He had sold his stake ahead of last season to be eligible to play.ADVERTISEMENTlast_img read more

18 days agoAston Villa skipper Grealish feels England call within reach

first_imgAbout the authorPaul VegasShare the loveHave your say Aston Villa skipper Grealish feels England call within reachby Paul Vegas18 days agoSend to a friendShare the loveAston Villa skipper Jack Grealish feels an England call-up is within reach.The 24-year-old responded to missing out on the latest Three Lions squad by producing his best performance of the season as Villa thumped Norwich 5-1 at Carrow Road on Saturday. Asked if he had expected a call-up for the forthcoming qualifiers with the Czech Republic and Bulgaria, Grealish replied: “No, not really. Not at the moment.“I know for a fact if I play to the best of my ability, then I can get in there. But this time, truthfully, I did not expect to get in.“I did well on Saturday, or I like to think I did well. If I keep performing to the way I know I can, hopefully this will give me a big lift and hopefully (I will get in) soon.” last_img read more

Ohio House Of Representatives Member Bill Patmon Wrote Cardale Jones A Personal Letter, Called Him “12 Gauge”

first_imgOhio representative Bill Patmon's letter to Cardale Jones.Ohio State’s Cardale Jones accomplished a great deal in 2014-2015, ascending from a third-string signal-caller to the starting quarterback for a team that won the Big Ten title, the Sugar Bowl and the College Football National Championship Game behind his leadership. It looks like he can add one more accolade to his repertoire too – an official congratulatory letter from Ohio House of Representatives member Bill Patmon.Patmon wrote to Jones, and used the QB’s nickname “12 Gauge” in the header, to congratulate him on his accomplishments. Jones posted a photo of the letter on Twitter.Cardale “12Gauge” Jones— Cardale Jones (@CJ12_) February 23, 2015Ironically, it’s not even a sure bet that Jones will be starting for the Buckeyes in 2015. There’s no word on whether Patmon also wrote to J.T. Barrett and Braxton Miller.last_img read more

CheGuevaras daughter Aleida calls on Kerala CM

first_imgThiruvananthapuram: Aleida Guevara, daughter of legendary Cuban Revolutionary Che-Guevara, on Monday called on Kerala Chief Minister Pinarayi Vijayan at his official residence here. Aleida had earlier arrived in Delhi and then late on Sunday reached here. In Kerala, her father is an idol among the Communist Party of India-Marxist cadres, especially its youth and students organisations. Later in the day she will be meeting a string of CPI-M state minister’s and also visit the state party headquarters. She will be attending a couple of programmes here as the chief guest including one on August 1, in Kannur — the bastion of the CPI-M. The next day she will be in Kochi.last_img

Leads to a mismatch Climate change may be putting natural world out

first_imgMother Nature is losing her timing.A major study has concluded that the delicately choreographed interactions between species that keep food webs functioning are more and more out of synch. And while the paper isn’t conclusive, it casts a suspicious eye on climate change.“Everything is consistent with the fact it’s getting warmer,” said Heather Kharouba, a University of Ottawa ecologist and lead author of a paper published Monday in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.Scientists have been finding for years that events in the natural world aren’t quite lining up the way they used to.Caribou calves are born later during the thick of blackfly season. Migrating hummingbirds, adapted for a specific spring flower, miss its bloom. Seabirds no longer rear their chicks when fish are most abundant.“Most of the examples were about food,” said Kharouba. “Is it available or is it not?”Kharouba and her colleagues decided to find out if the phenomenon was widespread and if they could measure it.Mining previous research from 1951 to 2013, they examined 88 species of mammals, birds and fish from four continents. The data included 54 different relationships involving predators and prey, plant eaters, pollinators and competitors.The team found that, as the climate has warmed, events in those relationships have been occurring an average of four days earlier per decade since the early 1980s — about 14 days in total.Not all are changing at the same rate, though.Some are closer together; some are further apart. The split is about 50-50. The relative timing of the events between species is now, on average, off by about 21 days.“It leads to a mismatch,” Kharouba said. “These events are out of synch.”She said time spanned by the data was too short to prove the mismatches were caused by climate change. The correlation, however, was strong.“We think it is the case,” she said. “All the changes we see are exactly what we would predict with warmer temperatures and how we would expect biology to respond.”The consequences are similarly hard to predict, but potentially far-reaching.Mismatches at the bottom of the food chain could reduce resources all the way up, Kharouba said. One study in a lake found the timing of blooms for the one-celled plants and animals that underlie aquatic life is off by 34 days.Conservation managers looking after endangered species may have to start taking environmental mismatches into account, the ecologist suggested.Not all species rely on specialized, carefully timed interactions with other organisms. Others may be able to adapt.But it’s not always possible for species to work things out for themselves. Some events are driven by warmth and some by day length. One is changing; the other isn’t.This is new ground and scientists just don’t have the information to predict what’s going to happen. New studies based on longer time scales or using models to simulate them need to be conducted.“We don’t have the data,” Kharouba said.“We think it’s going to have an impact. We think it’s going to matter, but it’s difficult to prove right now.”last_img read more