CSEC Physical Education Lecture Series: The nervous system

first_img The brain also receives information from three main types of receptor organs: i. Exteroceptors – outside the body (eyes, ears, etc.). ii. Interoceptors – Inside the body (chemical changes in blood or lungs) iii. Proprioceptors – From within muscles, tendons and joints. These are: a. Golgi tendon organs – detects the amount of stretch in a tendon. b. Muscle spindle – detects stretch in muscles. c. Joint receptors – tell the brain at what angle the joints are positioned. The information pick-up by these organs enables us to move our limbs quickly without the need to watch them. There are times when we are required to act quickly, for instance, if we touch something hot. This is where our reflexes come into play. The impulse does not need to travel to the brain for interpretation. The impulse travels in a fast arc from sensory, to relay, to motor nerves. Moving the hand from the hot object is the withdrawal reflex, which is similar to sneezing or blinking as a response to a foreign object in the nose or eye. Another example is the knee-jerk reflex, known as stretch reflex, wherein a bang on the knee results in the leg extending. The nervous system enables us to control and coordinate all the body activities. It enables performers to produce high-precision movements repeatedly, making them appear skilful, while other functions such as heartbeat carry on automatically. The nervous system consists of the brain, spinal cord, and the nerves which supply all parts of the body. It is responsible for all our conscious (or voluntary) actions and has two main parts. 1. The central nervous system This consists of the brain and spinal cord. The brain is the central centre of the entire system and is where all the incoming (sensory) information is processed and from where the outgoing (motor) information originates. The spinal cord goes down the inside of the spinal column from the brain. It carries all the nerve (sensory and motor) messages (impulses) between the body and the brain. 2. The peripheral nervous system This consists of the nerve fibres that branch out from the spinal cord, and the various organs to which they are attached. Sensory nerves detect stimuli such as temperature, light, sound, touch, etc … and send nervous impulses to the brain. Once the information has been processed, the nervous impulses are sent out down the motor nerves, to the muscles and glands which carry out the necessary action Structure of Nerve Cells Nerve cells, or neurones, carry information to or from the spinal cord and brain. They have three main sections. – Dendrites receive messages in the form of nerve impulses. – The nucleus is the main body of the cell. – The axon transmits the impulse away from the nucleus. Neurones are not actually connected to each other but are separated by a microscopic gap called the synaptic gap. Impulses are able to cross this gap via the release of a chemical substance called acetylcholine, which allows an impulse to travel through the nervous system at great speed. Types of Neuron There are three types of neuron. Each has a different function and this determines where the impulse is sent. 1. Sensory (afferent) neurons – These receive information from the sense organs (eyes, ears, nose, tongue, skin) and from receptors in the body and send impulse to the central nervous system (CNS). 2. Relay neurons – These are inside the brain or spinal cord and does the decision making after the impulse from the sensory neurons reaches the brain. If a decision for action is taken, the impulse is passed to the motor nerve. 3. Motor (efferent) neurons – These carry impulses from the CNS to muscles or organs. The cell body is inside the CNS and the axon leads out of it. Involuntary Nervous System This part of the nervous system is responsible for functions over which we have no control for example our heartbeat and digestion. These actions are controlled by the medulla oblongata, an area that forms the top of the spinal cord. This is divided into two sections: 1. The sympathetic nervous system – Responsible for preparing the body for action. It stimulates the adrenal gland and causes the heart rate and breathing rate to increase. It also slows down the functioning of organs not necessary for physical activity. This is known as the fight or flight response. 2. The parasympathetic nervous system – Responsible for slowing the body down and functions in opposition to the sympathetic nervous system. Receptors and Reflex Actionslast_img read more

GROW Liberia to Start New Program in Agriculture

first_imgGROW Liberia will this Wednesday begin its landmark “Making Markets Work for the Poor,” (M4P) agricultural markets development program in Monrovia.  The Minister of Finance and Development Planning, Amara Konneh, will give the keynote address while Ambassador Sofia Strand of Sweden will launch the event and spell out the Swedish Government’s commitment to Liberian agricultural market development. Other government officials expected to attend the launching program are the Minister of Agriculture, Dr. Florence Chenoweth, Ms. Ciatta Bishop, Director General of National   Bureau of Concessions, Acting Chairman of the National Investment Commission,  George Wisner, and Axel Addy, Minister of Commerce and Industry.In attendance will also be an array of partners from the Government of Liberia, donors, banks, development finance institutions, agribusinesses, smallholder farmers, import suppliers, and key partners and stakeholders including concessions.The GROW-led M4P approach to agricultural intervention is expected to reduce poverty and increase stability for 230,000 poverty-stricken people in targeted agricultural markets.The first M4P agricultural intervention program in the country comes at a time, when the country is striving to steer the economy away from its heavy reliance on the extractive sector to industrialized agriculture, said YoQuai Lavala, the program deputy team leader.Lavala recalls who Liberia has remained one of the poorest countries in the world, with an economy heavily reliant on export earnings from the agriculture sector.  But he   promised to change the story through successful agriculture programming.The country’s agriculture sector has suffered from decades of lack of investment and serious capacity shortfalls in agriculture expertise and market information.  These challenges have hindered many vegetable farmers from acquiring the right seeds and other essentials to grow high-priced vegetables such as tomatos, cabbage, pepper and watermelon, said Lavala.  According to him, the GROW M4P initiative promotes economic growth and stability for the poor through partnerships with value chain actors, specifically targeting smallholder farmers in key agricultural sectors, including vegetables, rubber, oil palm and cocoa, with a US$22 million budget covering five years from the date of the launch.Mr. Lavala is confident that GROW-Liberia interventions have the potential to deliver up to US$46 million additional income to 34 thousand farm enterprises and six thousand workers.According to the deputy team leader, GROW is currently researching interventions that will be started including  cocoa, aquaculture and Warehouse Receipts systems, as well as activities in transportation, access to finance and marketing information systems and packing. The program is funded by the Government of Sweden through the Swedish International Development Agency (Sida).The GROW Liberia program is being implemented by a consortium led by UK-based Adam Smith International, providing programmatic and financial direction, supported by the Springfield Centre, Mercy Corps and the Swedish Institute for Public Administration.Share this:Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)last_img read more


first_imgNew Letterkenny Chamber President John Bowe.Letterkenny Chamber of Commerce has elected John Bowe, Regional Banking Manager for AIB in The Northwest as its new President.Letterkenny Chamber’s outgoing President Brian McCormick handed over the presidential chain to incoming President John Bowe, Treasurer and Vice President of Letterkenny Chamber at the Chamber Annual General Meeting. John has served on the Chamber council as Treasurer and Vice President during 2015.John is the Regional Business Banking Manager for AIB Bank in the Northwest. A career banker and a Qualified Financial Advisor, he also completed a Diploma in SME Credit in 2015. He was Treasurer, Director and Board Member of Donegal Youth Services from 2005 to 2010 and is currently a Committee Member of Letterkenny Golf Club. He is an enthusiastic golfer and has a keen interest in technology.John has worked in a number of locations in Dublin, Kildare and Donegal over his 25 year career working with SME’s for most of that time. He was drawn back to Letterkenny in 2004 following an initial 3 year spell here from 1995 to 1998. John is married to Fiona, a teacher in Ballyraine National School and they have two children Emma and Conor.John hopes to emulate the hard work and dedication of the outgoing President Brian McCormick and is focussed on capitalising on the positive image of Letterkenny brought about by its Tidy Town success in 2015. He wants build on that image to platform Letterkenny as a destination, a place to do business and a place to live. He also wants members to see the Chamber as useful to each of their Businesses and is encouraging all members to engage with the Chamber in 2016.Apart from a new President the Chamber has a new Council. The Chamber Council is consists members from a wide variety of business sectors, who meet on a monthly basis and who are responsible for steering the policies, activities and initiatives of the Chamber. LETTERKENNY CHAMBER ELECTS NEW PRESIDENT was last modified: December 10th, 2015 by StephenShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:John BwoeLetterkenny Chamberlast_img read more

County Museum receives 1916 Centenary Commemorative Medal

first_imgDonegal County Museum has revealed that Defence Force Ireland has donated one of the 1916 Centenary Commemorative Medals (An Bonn Comórtha Céad Bliain 1916) to the Museum. The medal is now on display at the Museum on the High Road, Letterkenny. Captain Bridget Clarke, Adjutant, 28 Infantry Battalion attended on this occasion.Lt Colonel J Whittaker, Defence Forces Headquarters said “Given the role played by members of Óglaigh na hÉireann at local level, I would like to provide Donegal County Museum with the 1916 Centenary Commemorative Medal.” The medal serves to honour the legacy of continuous service by Óglaigh na hÉireann to the State since its foundation and to acknowledge the prominent and special role of Óglaigh na hÉireann in the centenary commemorations throughout 2016.It was designed to reflect the tradition of the original 1916 medals but was made respectfully different in deference to the men and women of 1916 who were originally awarded the medal.“Donegal County Museum has a longstanding collaborative relationship with the Defence Forces, particularly the 28 Infantry Battalion and we are delighted to have the 1916 Centenary Commemorative Medal for our collection”, Judith McCarthy, Curator, Donegal County Museum.County Museum receives 1916 Centenary Commemorative Medal was last modified: February 22nd, 2017 by StephenShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window)last_img read more

Arsenal ALERT! Giroud future depends on Arsene Wenger, reveals striker’s agent

first_img1 Olivier Giroud will only decide on his future once he knows whether Arsene Wenger will stay or go, according to the striker’s agent.Wenger is out of contract in the summer and yet to reveal whether or not he will stay at the club or draw a line under more than 20 years in north London.The uncertainty surrounding the manager has also been the cause of much speculation regarding the future of many Arsenal first team stars.One of those is Giroud, who has had a mixed season and been linked with a move back to France in recent months.The 30-year-old has started just nine games in the Premier League, with a further 16 appearances coming as a substitute and has so far scored nine goals.It has been suggested Marseille have already made contact about a potential summer swoop for the France international but his agent, Michael Manuello, insists that is not true.He told Foot Mercato: “Nothing is true. There was talk that Olivier was in contact with Rudi Garcia. I said that that was false. There is no contact between Marseille and us. At this point, there is no contact.“When we know exactly what Arsene Wenger is doing, we will ask ourselves questions. We will think about what is possible and what is not possible.“But his future is not only linked with that of the manager. It is linked to what Arsenal are going to do and if there is a change at Arsenal in terms of how Olivier is implicated at the project.“Things have not changed since his contract extension. Our desire is be at Arsenal long term.” Olivier Giroud is yet to commit to Arsenal beyond this season last_img read more

DONE DEAL! Manchester United complete signing of Romelu Lukaku from Everton

first_imgManchester United have completed the signing of striker Romelu Lukaku from Everton.Lukaku has penned a five-year deal with Jose Mourinho’s side after Everton accepted a bid worth an initial £75m plus a potential further £15m in add-ons.“Romelu is a natural fit for Manchester United,” said United boss Mourinho.“He is a big personality and a big player. It is only natural that he wants to develop his career at the biggest club.“He will be a great addition to the group and I know they will make him very welcome. I am really looking forward to working with him again.”Lukaku will link up with Mourinho’s squad in Los Angeles ahead of pre-season training. He departs Everton after four years at the Merseyside club, during which he scored 71 goals in 133 appearances across all competitions.“I would like to start by thanking Everton and the fans for the last four wonderful seasons,” he said.“I have made some special friends and we have shared some amazing moments. However, when Manchester United and Jose Mourinho come knocking at the door it is an opportunity of a lifetime and one that I could not turn down.“You could see the fight, determination and the spirit in this team during the Europa League final and I want to become a part of that.“I cannot wait to run out at Old Trafford in front of 75,000 fans but before that pre-season is where the hard work starts and I am looking forward to that first training session.” 1last_img read more

Man United ace to sign bumper new contract as Mourinho gives green light to deal

first_img changes Guardiola-inspired tactics: Is this how Arsenal will line up under Arteta? revealed Luke Shaw is to sign a bumper new contract with Manchester United as Jose Mourinho has given the green light to the deal.It was reported earlier this week that Shaw, the defender, was in line for a new deal following his excellent start to the Premier League season. Shaw broke his leg back in 2015, while playing against PSV Eindhoven Most read in Premier League latest gameday cracker 2 SORRY Green reveals how he confronted Sarri after Chelsea’s 6-0 defeat at Man City Liverpool’s signings under Michael Edwards – will Minamino be the next big hit? 2 huge blow Sky Sports presenter apologises for remarks made during Neville’s racism discussion Boxing Day fixtures: All nine Premier League games live on talkSPORT TOP WORK whoops The average first-team salaries at every Premier League club in 2019 Shaw has missed only two of United’s matches this season – one due to injury – and he’s been widely praised as the best-performing of Mourinho’s players so far.He scored his first ever goal for the Red Devils on the opening day of the Premier League season, which came a remarkable four years after he was signed by the club from Southampton. tense How Everton could look in January under Ancelotti with new signings Oxlade-Chamberlain suffers another setback as Klopp confirms serious injury He’s re-established himself as United’s first-choice left-back after a couple of injury-hit campaigns, even earning a return to the senior England set-up for the first time in a year-and-a-half.And despite a previously frosty relationship with Mourinho, the United manager, Shaw will extend his stay at Old Trafford with just eight months remaining on his existing deal.According to the Sun, Mourinho has approved Shaw’s bumper new five-year deal, that will see the 23-year-old earn a reported £190,000-a-week. Shaw is being rewarded for his excellent form with a new contract Shaw’s time with United has been disrupted by prolonged periods of poor form, consistent injury issues, as well as a broken leg, that have limited him to just 75 appearances in four full campaigns at Old Trafford. Liverpool news live: Klopp reveals when Minamino will play and issues injury update Did Mahrez just accidentally reveal Fernandinho is leaving Man City this summer? predicted last_img read more


first_imgAnybody who hasn’t got a ticket for Donegal’s red-letter day at Croke Park have been advised to get moving after GAA officials admitted the game is already on the verge of being sold-out.Croke Park bosses are increasingly confident that the All-Ireland SFC semi-final between Dublin and Donegal will deliver the GAA its first sell-out of 2011.With a frenzy of ticket interest emerging from both competing counties, Croker chiefs believe we could be looking at our first 82,300 capacity crowd of this recession-hit summer. “We are heading in the direction of a sell-out already, nine days out from the semi-final,” confirmed GAA communications manager Alan Milton today.Depending on the extent of Dublin county board’s ticket request, you may even find there are no more tickets available after this weekend.The Donegal county board has requested 15,000 tickets, 22,000 have been sold via the GAA’s ticket office, www.gaa.ie and other outlets by last Tuesday and 10,000 corporate seats are also set to be snapped up.“The Tyrone win has captured the imagination of Dublin supporters,” Milton confirmed. “Also the semi-final is a big day for neutrals because they cannot buy tickets for the final.”Presuming the 80,000 barrier is breached, it will signify a major upsurge on the 52,661 crowd for Dublin’s quarter-final demolition of Tyrone.The highest attendance of the season was 58,723 for a Leinster SFC semi-final double-header in June, when Dublin and Kildare were the headline act.DONEGAL AND DUBLIN GAME ALREADY ON VERGE OF BEING A SELL-OUT ADMIT GAA CHIEFS was last modified: August 20th, 2011 by StephenShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:Croke Parkdonegalticketslast_img read more


first_imgMojo GoGo Live on BBC RadioDONEGAL rockers Mojo GoGo certainly rocked tonight – live in BBC Radio.The musicians – Niki Pollock on Guitar and vocals, Keelin Gallagher, Bassist and singer along with guitarist Paul Rodgers and drummer Jordan Carty – belted out three new songs in the live session on BBC Radio Ulster’s famous Across The Line programme.It must have been good – fans have been going mad on Facebook and Twitter since the show last night.  RAVE REVIEWS FOR MOJO GOGO AFTER LIVE BBC RADIO GIG was last modified: March 26th, 2013 by BrendaShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:RAVE REVIEWS FOR MOJO GOGO AFTER LIVE BBC RADIO GIGlast_img read more

Patriots get bit by the Snake

first_img “We pride ourselves on playing smart and playing physical, I just think the execution wasn’t there,” Brady said. “When we were down 28-3, we started to figure it out a little bit.” After falling behind 21-3 in the first half, the Patriots came unraveled. The ugliness reached its crescendo on the last play of the half when Patriots offensive lineman Logan Mankins was ejected for taking a cheap shot on Ebenezer Ekuban, hitting him below the belt after Adam Vinatieri missed a 53-yard field goal. “It was a cheap shot,” Ekuban said. “Hopefully, the NFL will fine him heavily.” 160Want local news?Sign up for the Localist and stay informed Something went wrong. Please try again.subscribeCongratulations! You’re all set! “We knew we were going to get a couple of shots,” Plummer said. “They panned out like that.” Tatum Bell had a 68-yard run and finished with 114 yards to surpass the century mark for the second straight week as the Broncos (5-1) jumped ahead by 25 early in the third quarter en route to their fifth straight win. AD Quality Auto 360p 720p 1080p Top articles1/5READ MOREWalnut’s Malik Khouzam voted Southern California Boys Athlete of the Week Plummer finished with 262 yards and two touchdowns and extended his streak without an interception to 17 quarters. Over the previous three games, the errorless ball came seemingly at the expense of the big play – Plummer didn’t crack 150 yards in any of those games – but this time, the Broncos got both. “He’s definitely been playing a lot smarter,” said receiver Ashley Lelie, who caught the 55-yard pass. “He’s not trying to make every single play. It’s a credit to him understanding and accepting his role on the team. He puts up wins for us when he plays smart like that.” Trailing by 25, Tom Brady picked on the young Denver secondary – missing the injured Champ Bailey for most of the second half – to pull the Patriots within 28-20 late. New England had a chance to tie, but Brady threw three straight incompletions and after a punt, the Denver offense ran the final 3 minutes off the clock. Brady went 24 for 46 for 299 yards and a touchdown in a comeback effort fitting of the two-time Super Bowl MVP. center_img DENVER – Jake Plummer did more than merely manage the game, he controlled it. He made big plays when they were there, avoided mistakes and made the New England Patriots look more like a team in disarray than the NFL’s reigning dynasty. Plummer hit on throws of 72 and 55 yards to help the Denver Broncos to a 28-20 victory over the two-time defending champions Sunday, the first time he showed his explosive capability this season. last_img read more